Niger is supposed to be a republic with a
multi-party system. Presidential and parliamentary
elections are held every five years. The president
appoints a prime minister who leads the government's
work, but the president has great influence over the
decisions that are made.
The president is head of state and
commander-in-chief. She appoints the Prime Minister and
on his proposal other ministers in the government. The
President cannot be re-elected more than once.
Total population and chart of Niger for years of 2020, 2021, 2022, 2023 and 2024. Also covers population density, birth rate, death rate and population growth rates.
The legislative power lies with the General Assembly
with 171 members (the number increased from 113 before
the 2016 election). Parliamentary elections are held
simultaneously with the presidential election every five
A quarter of the ministerial posts should go to women
and women should make up at least a tenth of the MPs.
To amend the Constitution, both the President's
approval and four-fifths of the Members of Parliament
are required to vote in favor of the proposal.
The constitution guarantees freedom of association,
but it is not allowed to form parties that are aimed
solely at a particular people group, region or religion.
Many parties were founded in the early 1990s when
democracy was reintroduced after decades of
dictatorship. The parties are often built around a
leading person. Ideology plays a minor role. Conversions
and exchanges of alliances are common.
The largest party (since the 2016 election) is
President Mahamadou Issoufous's Nigerian Party
for Democracy and Socialism (the Nigeria
Democracy and Socialism Party, PNDS),
which was founded in 1990 and has a leftist imprint.
The second largest in the 2016 election was the
Movement for a Democratic Niger (Mouvement
Démocratique Nigeria, Moden). The party
is led by Hama Amadou who has been prime minister for
two periods, most recently 2000-2007 during Mamadou
Tandja's time as president. When Amadou and Tandja came
into conflict, among other things about Tandja's attempt
to extend his mandate (see Modern History), the Moden
2009 was formed by defectors from the Tandja Party
National Movement for Social Development
(Mouvement National de la Société de
MNDS was founded in 1988, at the end of the military
dictatorship. The party ruled from 1988 to 1993 and for
a further short period from 1999 until the beginning of
2010 when Tandja was deposed in a coup. MNDS is
described as a center-right party and came in third
place in the 2016 election. It is today led by Seyni
Oumarou, formerly Tandja's head of government.
Demonstration against the President
About 20,000 people attend the first major demonstration against President
Issoufou and his government in the capital. Organizers are the Alliance of the
Republic, Democracy and Reconciliation in Niger (ARDR), which brings together 15
opposition parties. The governing bodies are mainly criticized for corruption
and media censorship.
Demonstration ban is lifted
A ban on opposition groups to conduct public demonstrations is lifted.
Mobile subscriptions are turned off
The telecommunications authority shuts down almost a third of the mobile
subscriptions and the sale of unregistered SIM cards is prohibited. The
intention is to prevent criminals from committing crimes in the protection of
Refugee stream from Nigeria
UN agency Ocha reports that Niger has received about 40,000 refugees from
Nigeria in a few months. The refugees have been driven off by a Nigerian army
offensive against the Islamist extremist movement Boko Haram. The refugee stream
adds another strain to Niger's already difficult supply situation.
Human traffickers are arrested, migrant camps closed
The government orders that all migrant camps be closed. The order is an
attempt to put an end to the flow of African migrants north to Europe. The
decision is made after 92 people were found dead in northern Niger after their
vehicles broke down and the drinking water ran out. About 30 people are arrested
for human smuggling. Among the arrested are employees within the security
forces. Authorities say a network of human traffickers has been revealed and
among those arrested are those who left the 92 refugees to die in the desert.
Aqim releases kidnapped Frenchmen
Four Frenchmen held captive by the extreme Islamist movement Aqim are
released (see September 2010). The circumstances surrounding
the release are unclear, among other things, it is not known if any ransom has
The government is cracking down
Hama Amadou's Party Moden leaves the government coalition with President
Issoufou's party PNDS. The reason is that Moden is dissatisfied with the
allocation of ministerial posts. The drop-off means that Issoufou loses the
support of its most important partner and that the government is weakened.
Many dead in suicide bombings in the north
More than 20 people are killed and dozens injured in two coordinated suicide
attacks against a military site and a uranium mine in northern Niger. The
al-Qaeda- affiliated group The Movement for Unity and Jihad in West Africa
(Mujao) takes on the deed. Later, a spokesman for the Islamist group Written in
the Blood Battalion says the deed was planned by the group's leader Mokhtar
Belmokhtar, who was also behind the attack on a gas plant in Algeria in January
2013 when over 60 people were killed. According to the spokesman, the deed was
performed in Niger together with Mujao.