Nepal is a secular federal republic with
seven provinces. It guarantees citizens basic freedoms
and rights, recognizes a diversity of ethnic, religious
and linguistic groups and prescribes a democratic
multi-party system and an independent judiciary.
Nepal was given a new constitution in September 2015.
At that time, the country had been without a permanent
constitution for eight years due to strong political
contradictions about how the state of affairs would be
designed. A basic idea of the new constitution is to
move more power from the often politically turbulent
Kathmandu to the provinces.
Total population and chart of Nepal for years of 2020, 2021, 2022, 2023 and 2024. Also covers population density, birth rate, death rate and population growth rates.
Nepal was a kingdom for 239 years before it was
converted to the republic in 2008. The transformation
was the result of a long process that took off when the
last king, Gyanendra, tried to crush a Maoist uprising
by gaining absolute power. The king's actions caused the
political establishment to end the rally and, together
with the Maoist rebels, turn against him (see further
Nepal's president is the head of state and
commander-in-chief and has the primary task of promoting
national unity. They must act and make decisions in
accordance with government recommendations. The
President and Vice President are elected indirectly by
members of the Federal Parliament and the provincial
assemblies. The term of office is five years. The
president can be re-elected.
The executive power is held by the Federal Government
of Kathmandu. The prime minister (the head of
government) is formally appointed by the president and
is to be the leader of the largest party of parliament,
or in the alternative, the largest party alliance. The
Prime Minister must be approved by Parliament in a vote
of confidence no later than 30 days after the
nomination. The prime minister then appoints other
members of the government.
The legislative federal parliament of Kathmandu has
two chambers. The lower house (House of
Representatives) consists of 275 members who
are elected in general elections for a five-year term.
Of these, 165 are elected in majority elections in
one-man constituencies and 110 in proportional elections
according to party lists. The voting age is 18 years.
The upper house (National Assembly)
consists of 59 members. The seven provinces appoint
eight members each. Elected candidates are
representatives in the provincial assemblies, the
municipal council, as well as the mayor and the deputy
mayor of the municipalities. Of the eight members, at
least three must be women, a dalit (formerly called the
unemployed) and a disabled person or from a minority
group. Three members of the upper house are appointed by
the country's president on the advice of the federal
government. The term of office in the upper house is six
Each province has its own president, who is appointed
by the federal head of state for a single term of five
years. A provincial government has the executive power.
The provincial assembly consists of a chamber. It will
have twice as many members as the number representing
the province in the House of Representatives in
Kathmandu. A mixed election system is also used at
provincial level. The term of office is five years.
The seven provinces are divided into 77 districts
headed by a district manager. These include city
councils, municipal councils and district assemblies.
There are a large number of political parties in
Nepal. Partying has long been characterized by personal
struggles and phalanx. This applies to communist groups
to a great extent; there are a number of party
formations which are separated to the name only by their
The largest party in Parliament after the 2017
election is Nepal's Communist Party -
United Marxist Leninists (Communist
Party of Nepal-Unified Marxist-Leninists,
CPN-UML, often just called UML).
It was formed in 1991 through a merger of 14 communist
groups and is considered to represent a more moderate
communist policy than the Maoists.
Prior to the 2017 election, CPN-UML entered into a
election collaboration with Nepal's Communist
Party - Maoist Center
(Communist Party of Nepal-Maoistic Center, CPN-MC).
CPN-MC was founded in May 2016 when ten Maoist groups
broke out of the old Maoist guerrilla party, UCPN-M (see
below). The chairman of the CPN-MC is Prachanda, who led
the Maoist uprising against the kingdom. The party
became third in the elections and then formed a
left-wing government with UML, the Federal
Socialist Forum-Nepal (Sanghiya Samajwadi Forum
— Nepal) and some independent members. The Federal
Socialist Forum was formed in 2015 through a merger of
Most of the previous Maoist guerrillas formed a
portion following a merger with other Communists 2009
calls itself Nepal joined Communist-Maoists
(Unified CommunistParty of Nepal-Maoist,
UCPN-M). The guerrillas fought during
the 1996–2006 civil war for a communist people's
republic to be proclaimed. The Maoists, through threat
and terror, forced many to support them. But they also
gave low-caste rural residents, previously treated as
second or third-class citizens, influence and
opportunity for a social revenge. UCPN-M decreased in
importance after Prachanda dropped out and formed
The largest opposition party after the 2017 election
is the Nepalese Congress (Nepali
Congress, NC), which has played a
central role in politics since it was founded in 1950.
It is a middle party with some socialist elements. NC
has periodically suffered from severe internal
contradictions and power struggles. It became the second
largest party in the 2017 election.
There are a large number of parties / groups that are
regionally anchored or have their base in a certain
population group. Madhesi in the south has long felt
neglected by the central government and excluded from
power. Although the 2015 Constitution was intended to
spread power in the country, Madhesi protested for a
long period against the new constitution, which the
group considered to be disadvantaging the people of the
south (see Modern history).
Madhesi, who are not their own peoples but a generic
name for indiskättade residents of the Terai, was long
gathered in the political movement
Madhesifolkets right forum (Madhesi Janadhikar
Forum, MJF, sometimes MPRF with English
acronym). MJF received strong support in the 2008
election but subsequently split and strongly reversed in
the 2013 election.
In April 2017, seven Madhasian parties merged into
the National People's Party - Nepal
(Rastriya Janata Party — Nepal, RJP - N).
The party received 17 seats in the parliamentary
elections in 2017. The Madhesi party Loktantrik (Madhesi
Jana Adhikar Forum) formed the same month
Nepal's democratic forum together with two
other parties. There are Madhese groups who want to form
a self-governing region, Madhes.
The National Democratic Party-Nepal
(Rastriya Prajatantra Party Nepal, RPP-Nepal)
is a center-right, culturally conservative and royalist
party. Nationalism, democracy and liberalism are the
party's three ideological pillars.