Namibia is a democracy and a republic with
multi-party systems. The Swapo ruling party that led the
liberation struggle until independence in 1990 has
dominated politics ever since.
The constitution was adopted in connection with
independence in 1990. It states that the president is
head of state and government as well as
commander-in-chief. The President himself appoints his
government among the members of the National Assembly.
The prime minister's role is to be an adviser in
Total population and chart of Namibia for years of 2020, 2021, 2022, 2023 and 2024. Also covers population density, birth rate, death rate and population growth rates.
Every five years, presidential elections are held. A
candidate must receive at least half of the votes in the
first round. If this does not happen, a second round is
held between the two candidates who received the most
votes. A president may not sit for more than two terms
Prior to the autumn 2014 elections, a constitutional
amendment was adopted that strengthened the president's
power. The president was given the right to appoint a
newly appointed post as vice president and to appoint
the country's chief of defense and police chief. The
reform also strengthened the president's influence over
Parliament (see below).
The Parliament, the National Assembly,
has the task of passing laws. It consists of 96 elected
members who are elected in proportionate elections. The
President has the right to appoint an additional eight
members who are considered to have special expertise.
There is also an essentially advisory upper house,
the National Council, whose members are
appointed by regional councils for a period of six
years. The National Council has 42 members, three from
each of the country's 14 regions.
The judiciary is independent of state power. Under
the Supreme Court and a Supreme Court of Appeal, there
are about 30 courts for criminal or civil cases. In
rural areas, customary law is exercised through
traditional courts that address less serious crimes.
Namibia also has an ombudsman institution.
The policy is dominated by the Swapo
Government Party, which originally
stood for the South West Africa People's Organization
(South West African People's
Organization). Nowadays Swapo is the official name, as
the term South West Africa is considered obsolete.
Initially Swapo was a socialist liberation movement that
led the fight for independence from South Africa, but a
condition for Namibia to gain its independence was that
Swapo professed to multi-party systems and market
economy. After independence, nationalism has been a
central theme, in contrast to the ethnic divide during
the apartheid era. The party's official main goal is
reconciliation and reconstruction. In 2017, the party
asserted that its ideology is socialism "with a Namibian
character" which includes market economics and a
democratic system of the Western model.
The electoral base is strongest among the largest
population group ovambo in the north, but supporters are
found in all ethnic groups, especially in the cities.
Swapo has won all elections since independence by a
wide margin, but in the 2019 election voter support
decreased significantly (see Current policy).
The largest opposition party is the Conservative
People's Democratic Movement (Popular
Democratic Movement, PDM). The party
was formed with South African support in 1977 under the
name Democratic Turnhalle Alliance (DTA).
The change of name in 2017 was a way to try to shake off
the historical connection to the apartheid regime in
Parliament's third-largest party is the Left
Landless people's Movement (Landless Peoples
Movement LMP). The party was formed in
2018 by Bernadus Swartbooi, who was previously Deputy
Minister of Agriculture and who resigned since he came
into conflict with his superior about how the
redistribution of land should be handled. A
comprehensive land reform is a key point of the party's
program (see also Agriculture).
There are a number of other small parties that have
the strongest support within any of the smaller groups
and thus cannot be very large. Among them are two who
broke out of the DTA in 2003: the United
Democratic Front (United Democratic Front,
UDF), which is mainly supported by the
women's people, and the Democratic Organization
for National Unity (National Unity Democratic
Organization, Nudo), which has its
support among herero.
Two other smaller parties with seats in Parliament
are the Workers Revolutionary Party (WRP)
and the Whole People's Party (All
Peoples Party, APP).
New election to the National Council
Elections are held for the National Council (upper house). Swapo takes 24
seats, while the UDF and the Democratic Turnhalle Alliance (DTA) each receive
one. Of the selected, 19 are men and 7 are women.
Parties return to work
The parties that have boycotted Parliament since March decide to take part in
RDP enters into collaboration with mini-party
A merger is announced between the largest opposition party RDP and the small
Republican party, which has its electoral support mainly among white Namibians.
Swapo celebrates 50 years
Swapo celebrates its 50th anniversary.
Further changes in the government
Pohamba is re-furnishing the government. New Foreign Minister becomes Utoni
Nujoma, son of Sam Nujoma.
The National Assembly takes office
The new National Assembly is taking office, but the RDP and two other
opposition parties are boycotting the session because of allegations of
Independence is celebrated
Namibia celebrates 20 years as an independent nation.
The election result is appealed
Nine opposition parties claim that electoral fraud occurred and appealed the
election result to a court.