Montenegro became independent in 2006 and is
a parliamentary democracy. The head of state is the
president, who is elected in general elections, but who
primarily has a symbolic and ceremonial role. For more
than 25 years, politics has been dominated by the DPS
party under Milo Šukanović.
The president is elected for a term of five years.
For victory in the first round of elections, at least
half of the votes are required, otherwise a second round
of elections is held between the two main candidates. A
president can only be re-elected once.
Total population and chart of Montenegro for years of 2020, 2021, 2022, 2023 and 2024. Also covers population density, birth rate, death rate and population growth rates.
The latter rule led to a political battle before the
presidential election in April 2013. Despite Filip
Vujanović already sitting on the presidential post for
two terms of office, he ran for election and won.
Vujanović and his supporters felt that his first term in
2003 would not be counted since the 2007 constitution
had not entered into force (and Montenegro had not
become independent from Serbia, see Modern History).
Vujanović was not a candidate in the 2018 elections.
The legislative power lies with the single-chamber
parliament (Skupština Republike Crne Gore) with 81
members elected in four years. Montenegro is divided
into 21 local parishes or municipalities (opštine).
Elections to the local parishes are held every four
A weak opposition has contributed to the fact that
for more than a quarter of a century politics in
Montenegro could be dominated by Milo Šukanović, whose
main goal was Montenegro's independence and then
membership in the EU and NATO. After the October 2016
parliamentary elections, in which the Socialist Party
(see below) again became the largest party, he had been
able to take office for a ninth term as prime minister
since 1991 but chose to hand over power to his close
confidant, Deputy Prime Minister Duško Marković.
Šukanović, however, remains a party leader in DPS and
has always been involved in and controlled in the
background. He also stood as a candidate in the
presidential election in April 2018 and already won in
the first round.
Montenegro politics has long revolved around the
country's independence. After this was achieved, the
most debated issues became membership in the EU and
NATO. Since the NATO membership became a fact in 2017,
only the EU remains.
Party politics has been dominated by Montenegro for
more than a quarter of a century by Montenegro's
Democratic Socialist Party (Democratic Party of
Socialist Crne Gore, DPS) under Milo
Šukanović. Like the Socialist Party SPS in Serbia, DPS
emerged from the old Communist Party. DPS split in 1998
and then Šukanović led his part of the party, under the
same name, on a reform-friendly and pro-Western course;
he worked already during the 1990s first to give
Montenegro greater autonomy towards Serbia but soon to
make Montenegro an independent state.
Montenegro is governed by the DPS-led coalition in
the fall of 2016 with a small Montenegro Liberal
Party (Liberalna Partija Crne Gore,
LPCG), Montenegro Social Democrats
(Socijaldemokrate Crne Gore, SD) and
three parties representing the Bosnian, Albanian and
Croatian minorities: Bosnian the party
(Bošnjačka Stranka, BS, New
Democratic Power (Nova Democratic Snaga, Forca
/ Forca e Re Demokratike) and the Croatian
Citizens' Initiative (Hrvatska Gradanska
The opposition is fragmented and has been reformed,
which has benefited the ruling coalition. There are some
40 political parties, many with some unclear ideological
orientation, and just in 2015 four new parties were
formed following the departure of older parties. Prior
to the 2016 election, however, the largest opposition
alliance Democratic Front (Demokratski
Front, DF), thanks to the
demonstrations against the Šukanović government (see
Modern history), considered themselves a real chance to
take power. The Serbian-friendly and pro-Russian DF was
formed before the 2012 election and then received almost
a quarter of the vote. Now, however, DF only got 18
places, partly due to dropouts.
The opposition also includes the so-called Key
Coalition, which consists of three central left parties
where the largest, the Democratic Alliance
(Demokratski Savez, DS), is made up of
the DF defectors. Another two opposition parties came
into parliament: Democratic Montenegro
(Democratic Crna Gora, DCG, also formed
after the resignation) and Montenegro's Social
Democratic Party (Socio- Democratic
Party, Crija Gore, SDP, a
former long-standing coalition partner for the DPS who
also suffered from the sacking).
The EU approves agreements
The EU also signs the Stabilization and Association Agreement with Montenegro
(see March 2007).
Constitution is adopted
The independent Montenegro adopts its first constitution. This is done after
a long and heated debate and after a vote in which the necessary two-thirds
majority of the vote in Parliament is needed with hardly any need.
Association Agreement with the EU
Montenegro signs a Stabilization and Association Agreement (SAA) with the EU,
the first step on the path to EU membership, but for that to happen, the EU
requires continued reforms.
Member of the IMF and the World Bank
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank include Montenegro
as a member of their respective organizations.