Luxembourg is a constitutional monarchy whose
head of state is titled Grand Duke. The Grand Duke
mainly has ceremonial duties. Government power is
exercised by a Council of Ministers, which is
responsible to Parliament.
The statute is from 1868, but several changes and
additions have been made since then. A change made in
2008 reduced the powers of the Grand Duke, from having
the task of approving laws to just signing them. The
reason was that the seated monarch Grand Duke Henri, for
conscience reasons, did not want to approve a law on
euthanasia (see further Modern History). Male and female
succession is applied.
Total population and chart of Luxembourg for years of 2020, 2021, 2022, 2023 and 2024. Also covers population density, birth rate, death rate and population growth rates.
The Council of Ministers, or the government, is led
by the prime minister, whose official title is the
government president. The legislative power lies with
Parliament, the Chamber of Deputies,
which has 60 members. They are elected in general,
direct elections every five years. Since 1919, voting
has been mandatory for all citizens from the age of 18.
An important role in the legislative work is played
by the Council of State
(Conseil d'état), whose 21 members are appointed by the
Grand Duke, partly under the participation of the
Chamber of Deputies and the Council itself. Renewal
occurs gradually. The Council, which is the highest
administrative court, gives its opinion on all
legislative proposals and can veto them. However, the
Council's veto may be repealed by the Chamber of
Luxembourg is administratively divided into three
districts, twelve cantons and 106 municipalities.
Municipal elections are held every six years. Foreign
citizens, who make up almost half the population, may
vote in municipal elections.
The Grand Duchy has long been characterized by
political stability and consensus on most major issues.
The dominant party is the Christian Democratic Christian
Social Party (Chrëschtlech Sozial
Vollekspartei, CSV) which, with a few
exceptions, has led all governments since 1919. The
Christian Democrats have mostly been in coalitions with
the Social Democratic Socialist Workers Party
(Lëtzebuerger Sozialistarbeechterpartei, LSAP),
and some the Liberal Democratic Party
(Democratic Party, DP).
After the 2013 elections, however, the Christian
Democrats went into opposition and a government was
formed consisting of social democrats, liberals and the
Green Party (Die Gréng). It remained
even after the 2018 election.
The Greens have been in the picture since the 1980s,
as has the Nationalist Alternative Democratic
Reform Party (Alternativ Demokratesch
Reformpartei, ADR). The latter was
formed as a "single-issue party" for better pension
conditions for private employees, but has gradually
become more conservative in general policy. The party
went under a few different names before adopting the
current form in 2006. In 1999, the Left
(Die Lénk) was formed when a number of activists joined
forces to create a partial alternative to the left of
In the 2018 elections, Luxembourg's
first Pirate Party (Pirate
Party Luxembourg) entered Parliament for the
first time. The party was founded in 2009 with the
Swedish counterpart as a model.