Liechtenstein is a constitutional monarchy
where the head of state is the prince. The country has a
parliamentary regime with elements of direct democracy.
At the same time, Liechtenstein is Europe's only
monarchy where a large part of the power still rests
with the regent.
The princess title is inherited on the male side. The
head of state has been Hans-Adam II (born 1945) since
1989 but in 2004 he handed over the government
responsibility to his son, Crown Prince Alois (born
Total population and chart of Liechtenstein for years of 2020, 2021, 2022, 2023 and 2024. Also covers population density, birth rate, death rate and population growth rates.
The prince has the right to appoint and dismiss the
government. He appoints judges and can veto legislative
proposals. Previously, Parliament could appeal to the
Supreme Court if it disagreed with the prince about how
the Constitution should be interpreted, but that
possibility is now gone. A large number of citizens
believe that the prince guarantees stability in the
country. A proposal to limit the powers of the prince
was voted down in the 2012 referendum (see Modern
However, as in Switzerland, there are elements of
direct democracy that give citizens far-reaching
political rights. They can themselves submit legislative
proposals, or request a referendum on Parliament's
decision, if 1,000 people or three of the eleven
municipalities support the requirement. In case of
constitutional changes or in the case of international
agreements, 1,500 people or four municipalities are
required. However, Parliament may declare a decision in
advance as a matter of particular importance and thus
prevent a referendum. The annual budget is always
Parliament, the country, has 25 members elected in
general, proportional elections every four years. Of
these, 15 come from the northern part of Oberland and 10
come from the south, Unterland. Female suffrage was
first introduced in 1984. Legislative power is exercised
by the landowner together with the prince. According to
the Constitution, the government must have five members
appointed by the land day and approved by the prince.
The voting age is 18 and there is a duty to vote.
Parties must get at least 8 percent of the vote to
enter the country. Politics is characterized by
stability. Two parties generally dominate and form a
coalition government together: the Federation of the
Federation (Vaterländische Union, VU) and the
Progressive Citizens' Party (Fortschrittliche
Bürgerpartei, FBP). Both were formed after the First
World War and are conservative, Catholic and monarchist.
VU is regarded as the more liberal of the two.
The environmental party The Free List (Freie List,
FL) was formed in 1985 and entered the country eight
years later. The Independents (Die Unabhengigen, DU)
were formed by a defender from VU prior to the 2013
elections and at one time took office in Parliament.
The judiciary has two levels before the Supreme
Court. In addition, there is an administrative court for
review of government decisions and a constitutional
court. All the courts are in Vaduz.