Kosovo's constitution is based on the
so-called Ahtisaari plan that Finnish mediator Matti
Ahtisaari designed before Kosovo unilaterally proclaimed
its independence in February 2008. Since the war in the
late 1990s, the international community (UN, EU) has
been, and is still partially, involved. in the rule and
defense of Kosovo, but increasingly the country's own
institutions have taken over.
According to the Constitution, Kosovo is a democratic
and indivisible republic. However, four municipalities
in the north with a large Serbian population will be
given far-reaching autonomy under a 2013 agreement
negotiated with EU assistance. However, the
implementation of the agreement is slow.
Total population and chart of Kosovo for years of 2020, 2021, 2022, 2023 and 2024. Also covers population density, birth rate, death rate and population growth rates.
The constitution is based on a division of power
between executive, legislative and judicial
institutions. The President and the Prime Minister,
together with the government, have the executive power,
the legislative parliament and the Supreme Court the
The President is Head of State and is elected by
Parliament for a term of five years. The election takes
place with a two-thirds majority, but if two attempts to
appoint a new president have failed, a third attempt
with a simple majority will suffice. A president can be
Parliament has 120 members elected in four years.
Twenty of the sites are reserved for minorities: ten for
Serbs, four for Roma / Ashkali / Egyptians, three for
Bosniaks, two for Turks and one for Gorani (see
Population and Languages). Thirty percent of the mandate
is for women.
In the early years following Kosovo's independence,
Kosovo was overseen by an International Steering Group (ISG).
The steering group consisted of more than 20 countries
in Europe, including Sweden, as well as the United
States, all of which had recognized Kosovo's
independence. The ISG, in turn, appointed a so-called
International Civil Representative (ICR), who would
oversee Kosovo's state-building process in accordance
with the Ahtisaari plan. The ICR also had powers to
annul decisions made by Kosovo's own institutions if
they were contrary to the plan. However, these were
never needed. In September 2012, supervised independence
ceased and all ICR powers were transferred to Kosovo
The parties in Kosovo are formed around strong
leaders, often with anchoring in a certain region or
with a certain people group. Political ideologies
usually play less role in describing the political
residence of the parties. There is a fairly broad
political consensus on a comprehensive reform policy
aimed at moving Kosovo towards EU and NATO membership.
The largest was for a long time the Kosovo
Democratic Party (Partia Demokratike e Kosovės,
PDK), with roots in the guerrilla
movement Kosovo's liberation army (Ushtrisė
tė irlirimtare tė Kosovės, UĒK) (see
Modern history). The party was founded by Hashim Thaēi
and, since Thaēi was elected president in 2016, Kadri
Veseli is led. PDK was initially left-oriented but now
calls itself a center-right party. It led various
coalition governments between 2007 and 2019.
The Kosovo Democratic Alliance (Lidhja
Demokratike e Kosovės, LDK) was founded
in the early 1990s by Ibrahim Rugova, who had a
prominent role in the peaceful struggle for an
independent Kosovo. LDK dominated Kosovo's policy for
many years but saw the origins of PDK as the largest
party in the 2007 elections. LDK has since then both
been in government coalitions and been in opposition.
LDK's coalition partner after the 2019 election
became the radical Albanian-nationalist Lėvizja
Vetėvendosje (Self-Determination Movement, LV).
However, the coalition was short-lived (see Current
Policy). Vetėvendosje, as the party is commonly called,
was formed in 2005 and has, among other things, opposed
the agreement with Serbia (see Foreign Policy and
Defense), often with drastic methods such as tear gas
attacks in Parliament. Vetėvendosje went strong in the
2017 elections and became the biggest in the following
elections, 2019. Founder Albin Kurti is a former student
leader who has been sentenced to prison in both Serbia
and Kosovo. He has advocated a Greater Albania and has
started a party section in Albania. Kurti has been prime
minister since February 2020.
The Center Party The Alliance for Kosovo's
Future (Aleanca p Ardhmėrinė e Kosovės,
AAK), just like PDK, has its roots in the
guerrilla movement UĒK. Party leader is Ramush Haradinaj,
who was prime minister for a short period of 2004-2005
and was re-elected in September 2017. However, in the
summer of 2019, he resigned after being called to a
court that investigates war crimes during the Kosovo War
of 1998-1999 (see also Democracy and Rights). Haradinaj
remained as the leader of a transitional government
until Kurti took office in 2020.
The new Kosovo Alliance (Aleanca
Kosovo e Re, AKR) is a middle party
whose leader Behgjet Pacolli is a building magnate
usually described as Kosovo's richest man. Pacolli was
president for a short time in early 2011 (see Calendar).
In spring 2014, two defectors from PDK formed a new
party: Initiative for Kosovo (Nisma pėr
Kosovėn, Nisma or NK).
Another new party, the Alternative
(Alternative) was formed in early 2017 by two jumpers -
one from Vetėvendosje and one from AKR.
The largest among the Serbian parties is the
Serbian list (Srpska Lista, SL).
PDK wins local elections
Local elections are held and Prime Minister Thaçi's Social Democratic PDK
takes power in 20 of 36 municipalities. President Fatmir Sejdiu's right-wing LDK
wins the mayor's post in Prishtina. Local elections are the first elections that
take place after the declaration of independence. The election is being
conducted without incidents with the exception of some minor unrest between
Serbs and Albanians in the city of Mitrovica. Voter turnout is 45 percent, but
significantly lower in Serbian-dominated areas.
Concern in Mitrovica
Noise breaks out between Albanians and Serbs in Mitrovica.
Joint security force
A new national security force comprising both Albanians and Serbs is