Finland is a republic that applies a
combination of parliamentarism and presidential rule.
The executive power is shared between the president and
the government while the parliament passes the laws.
Finland has a long tradition of forming broad coalition
governments. Partying is not characterized by right and
left blocs in the same clear way as in Sweden.
In 2000, Finland adopted a new constitution that
strengthens Parliament's influence at the expense of the
president's powers, for example when the prime minister
is to be appointed and the government formed. The
President is responsible for foreign policy in
collaboration with the government. Formally, the
president is commander-in-chief, but the day-to-day
management of the defense is handled by the commander of
the military. The president appoints the government,
which must be approved by the parliament,
and appoints senior officials.
Total population and chart of Finland for years of 2020, 2021, 2022, 2023 and 2024. Also covers population density, birth rate, death rate and population growth rates.
The president is elected in general elections for a
six-year term and may be re-elected at most once. If no
candidate receives at least 50 percent of the votes in
the first round, the decision will be made in a second
round between the two main candidates. Until 1994, the
president was elected by 300 elected voters, but since
then direct presidential elections have been held.
The Riksdag has 200 members who are appointed every
four years in general proportional elections. The
election system has strong features of personal choice.
The Finnish Parliament has no percentage barrier, which
favors small parties.
Previously, Finland was divided into counties, but
gradually the number of counties has been reduced and in
2010 they were completely abolished. Åland is still a
landscape of its own with some autonomy (see Åland). The
number of municipalities has also been reduced. Since
2013, there are 320 municipalities (plus 16 in Åland)
that are mainly responsible for schools and health care.
A elected municipal council makes the decisions while
the municipal council executes them.
The Sami Parliament is the highest
political body of the Sami people. It has 21 members who
are elected for four years at a time. In the so-called
Sami hometown area, which consists of four
municipalities in the Lapland province, the Sami
Parliament can independently decide on issues concerning
the Sami language and culture.
The legal system is similar to the Swedish one with
district courts, court courts and a Supreme Court. The
judiciary is divided into public courts for disputes and
criminal cases as well as administrative courts for
public law. There are also several special courts, such
as the Labor Court.
The age of punishment is 15 years, but lesser
penalties of four months up to one year occur for
persons under 18 years.
During the post-war period, Finnish politics was
dominated by four parties: the Center Party (from the
1988 Center), the Social Democrats, the Socialist Party
and the Left (from the 1990 Left Federation).
Historically, the change of government has been
commonplace and the coalitions have switched between the
different parties. Government work has been
characterized by attempts to find compromises. Often,
the balance of power between right and left has been
maintained by the government being dominated by one side
and the president coming from the opposite side.
Center in Finland (Suomen
Keskusta, Kesk) was founded in
1908 and was then called the Agrarpartiet. At first it
was a purely rural or peasant party, but over the years
it has widened its electoral base. The center now
advocates a policy to support private enterprise and
drives environmental issues and demands for
decentralization of power. The party joined virtually
all governments from 1945 to 1987, and it later
reappeared in several rounds in new coalitions. Long
periods have been greatest among the bourgeois parties.
The Center was in opposition in 2011–2015, but became by
far the largest party in the parliamentary elections in
April 2015 and formed a completely bourgeois government
between the Center, the Collective Party and the True
Finns. However, in connection with a party leader's
election in June 2017, the True Finns were divided.
Remaining in the government became the breaker fraction
New Alternative (see below).
The true Finns (Perussuomalaiset,
PS) is a nationalist party that wants
to limit immigration to Finland and leave EU
cooperation. In the 2011 parliamentary election, the
party became the third largest and invited to
participate in government work, but chose to stay in
opposition because of the other government parties'
EU-friendly policy. In the 2015 election, the true Finns
were given the second most mandate and were included in
the tripartite government that was formed afterwards.
However, after electing a more radical right-wing leader
in June 2017, the party was thrown out of government.
In connection with the change of party leader in June
2017, a more moderate faction broke out of the true
Finns. It called itself the New Alternative
and remained in office.
The National Collective Party (Kansallinen
Kokoomus, KOK) is a Liberal
Conservative Party. As long as the Soviet Union retained
some influence over Finnish politics, the Collective
Party was left out of government cooperation, but from
the beginning of the 1990s it has participated in many
governments. The unity party became the largest in the
Riksdag in the 2011 election and led a coalition
government in 2011–2015. In the 2015 election, it
received the second most votes, but as a result of the
electoral system received a mandate less than the true
Finns. The unifying party was part of the bourgeois
government that was formed after the elections in 2015.
The unifying party Sauli Niinistö was elected in 2012 as
Finland's first bourgeois president of over 50 years.
The Finnish Social Democratic Party
(Suomen Sosialidemokraattinen Puolue,
SDP) is reminiscent of the Swedish
Social Democrats. The party was a member of all
governments from 1966 to 1991 and has participated in
most coalitions since 1994. The Social Democrats were in
opposition from 2007 to 2011, but were part of the
coalition government from 2011 to 2015. In the 2019
election, it became the largest party, however, with
very little margin before the True Finns and the
Collecting Party which received almost as many votes.
Four smaller parties are also represented in the
Riksdag since the elections in 2015. Of these, the
Green League (Vihreä Liitto,
VIHR) is the largest. The greens, as
the party is usually called, have their roots in the
environmental movement in the 1970s and 1980s. The party
moved forward in the 1990s and has participated in
The left federation (Vasemmistoliitto,
VAS) was founded in 1990 through a
merger between the Communist Party of Finland and the
Socialist Democratic Alliance for the People of Finland
/ the People's Democrats. The left federation has
participated in various government coalitions. The party
stands to the left of the Social Democrats and advocates
The Swedish People's Party (Suomen
Ruotsalainen Kansanpuolue, SFP)
sat continuously in governments for 35 years before it
came into opposition after the 2015 election. Its voter
turnout has steadily declined. As the name suggests, the
party represents the Swedish-speaking population.
Finland's Christian Democrats (Suomen
have been in parliament since 1970.