Andorra became a sovereign state and got its
constitution first in 1993. According to the
constitution, the president of France and the bishop of
Urgell in Spain are the country's heads of state, but
their posts are essentially symbolic.
The legislative power lies with the Parliament, the
General Council, whose 28 members (the number may vary)
are elected in general elections every four years. Half
of the members are elected in a constituency that covers
the entire country. The others are elected through
elections within the country's seven municipalities (paròquies),
who appoint two members each. The municipalities
correspond to the traditional church parishes.
Total population and chart of Andorra for years of 2020, 2021, 2022, 2023 and 2024. Also covers population density, birth rate, death rate and population growth rates.
The government has the executive power and is
responsible to the General Council. The head of
government (cap de govern) is elected by the General
Council and appoints other ministers, who may not
simultaneously be members of the General Council. The
Head of Government may sit for a maximum of two
consecutive terms of office.
The voting age is 18, and only Andorran citizens are
allowed to vote.
Political parties were only allowed through the 1993
constitution and the first free elections were held in
The Liberal Conservative Andorra's Liberal
Party (Partit Liberal d'Andorra,
PLA, formerly the Liberal Union), alone or in a
coalition, had the government power for most of the
period 1994–2011. The party was part of the Alliance
Democrats for Andorra (Democrats
per Andorra, DA) formed before the April 2011
election and which gathers the center and right parties.
The DA then won a large majority of the mandate in
Parliament and was able to form a government. Even after
the 2015 election, the DA retained government power.
Then PLA re-established itself as a party under a new
name, Andorra's Liberals (Liberals
d'Andorra) and came in second place.
The former leading National Democratic group (Agrupament
Nacional Democràtic) was split in 2000 into two parties,
the Left Liberal Social Democratic Party (Partit
Socialdemocràta, PS) and the center party Andorra's
Democratic Center Party (Center Demòcrata Andorra, CDA),
the former Democratic Party.
The Social Democrats won the election in April 2009,
but were forced to announce new elections and lost power
two years later. Ahead of the 2015 elections, they
formed an alliance with the Greens (Verds d'Andorra) and
a smaller party, the Citizens' Initiative (Iniciativa
Andorra has one court for criminal cases, one for
litigation and a supreme court. The courts are free from
the executive power. The judges are appointed by an
independent judicial council which also monitors the
functioning of the judicial system. There is an
ombudsman examining private individuals' complaints
against Andorran authorities.